the balance of nature and modern conditions of cultivation a practical manual

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PAGE Area of United Kingdom and Cultures...... xxiii SPORTING Ancient To procure Food Chase- Use of Dog and Horse Anglo-Saxon Norman Forest Laws Game Vermin . . xxiii FISHING Early Times Food the Aim Rights Salmon and Freshwater Conservators Poaching ...... xxiv FORESTRY Area of Woods and Plantations Saxon Times Game Afforestation State Forest Demonstration Catchment Areas Deer Forests Game Hindrance ...... xxv FARMING Roman State of Britain at Roman Invasion Under Agricola Anglo-Saxon Community of Anglo-Saxons Norman- Feudal System Effects of Feudalism Ecclesiastics Tithes Magna Charta . . . . . . . xxviii Sporting on own Land Town Charters Great Plague Statute of Labourers Peasants Revolt Freedom of Serfs Granted and Annulled by Richard III Chartered Guilds Sheep-rearing Wool xxxii Reform versus Revolution Decline of Ecclesiastics First English Treatise on Husbandry Tusser Revival of Forest Laws Jethro Tull Drilling System , . . . . xxxv Poaching Increased Game Laws Relict of Forest Laws Impetus given to Agriculture by Wars of French Revolution Game Cer- tificate only Qualification to Kill Game on own Land- Royal Agricultural Society Repeal of Corn Laws Free Trade. . xxxviii Landlords Improvements of Estates Small Holdings and small Farms Engulfed Agricultural Gang Act Inquiry into Game Laws Agricultural Holdings Bill Passed for England and Scot- land Crofters versus Deer Forests Small Holdings disappear Depletion of Rural Districts Population Arable Land laid down to Pasture . , . . . , , xxxix v 39709 vi CONTENTS PAGE Local Authorities Remiss in acting upon Powers for Allotments and Small Holdings- First Allotments Act Three Acres and a Cow Mr. Jesse Collingss Allotment Act Mr. Henry Chaplins Small Holdings Act Result of Act Small Holdings and Allot- ments Act, 1907 . ... . . . . . . xlii GARDENING Co-operative with Farming in Roman, Saxon and Norman times Fostered by Ecclesiastics First English Author on, wrote at St. Albans Rapid Progress in Nineteenth Century . xliv DEDUCTIONS Success of Cultures Regulation by Government . xlvi PART I GENERAL HABITS CHAPTER I WILD ANIMALS Section i. Insectivorous and Harmless Cheiroptera or Bats Shrew-mouse Water-shrew Oared Shrew Rustic Shrew ......... i Section 2. Partly Useful and Partly Injurious Badger Hedgehog Mole Weasel...... 5 Section 3. Destructive. Fox Marten Pine Marten Polecat Stoat Otter Brown Rat House Mouse Long-tailed Field Mouse Harvest Mouse Water Vole Field Vole Red Field Vole Dormouse Squirrel . 10 CHAPTER II WILD BIRDS RESIDENT Section i. Insectivorous and Harmless Kestrel Barn Owl Common Creeper Common Wren Golden- crested Wren Long-tailed Titmouse Cole Titmouse Marsh Tit- mouse Crested Titmouse Hedge Sparrow Goldfinch Spotted Woodpecker Lesser Woodpecker Green Woodpecker Lapwing CONTENTS Section 2. Partly Useful and Partly Injurious Nuthatch Redbreast BlueTitmouse GreatTitmouse Meadow Pipit Missel Thrush Blackbird Song Thrush Jay Magpie- Rook Jackdaw Starling Grosbeak Chaffinch Common Lin- netGreenfinch House Sparrow Tree Sparrow Bunting- Yellow-hammer Field or Skylark Wood Lark Bullfinch Ringdove Stockdove Rock Pigeon. .. . Section 3. Destructive to Game, Poultry, and Pigeons Sparrow-hawk Hen Harrier Gyr-Falcon Goshawk Long- eared Owl Tawny Owl Carrion Crow Hooded Crow . , . AQUATIC OR WATER BIRDS RESIDENT Section i. Insectivorous and Harmless Pied Wagtail Dipper . . . -.--.-. , . ... . vii PAGE 35 . 5 T Section 2. Partly Useful and Partly Injurious Kingfisher Heron Curlew Waterhen Coot Crested Grebe- Common Gull . . . 5 6 CHAPTER III MIGRATORY BIRDS Section i ...
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